Exchanging Knowledge about Pacific material culture

In September I ran a Knowledge Exchange workshop as part of National Museums Scotland’s national programme. The workshop ‘An Introduction to Pacific Collections’ was aimed at other museum and heritage professionals in Scotland who care for Pacific collections. This event was one of the outcomes of our Pacific collections in Scottish Museums project. It was an opportunity to share the knowledge I have been developing since beginning the project in April 2013. The event was a one day workshop where attendees could learn about identifying, caring for, displaying and interpreting Pacific material culture.

We began the workshop with an overview of the project, followed by an introduction to the type of material and the cultural areas likely to be found represented in Scottish collections. This information was based on trends which became apparent in the course of reviewing the four project partner collections although of course there will always be surprising artefacts hidden in collections too. I then took everyone around the Facing the Sea Gallery at National Museums Scotland. For any readers who haven’t had a chance to visit the museum, this gallery provides an insight into Pacific culture through display of artefacts from across the region. I talked through different subjects ranging from the concept of mana, the reasons for making and collecting boat models, and changing ideas about how Kiribati coconut fibre armour was be worn.

Looking at the Kiribati coconut fibre armour on display at national Museums Scotland

Looking at the Kiribati coconut fibre armour on display at national Museums Scotland


I took the opportunity to pause at one of my favourite parts of the gallery – a display of fishhooks from all over the Pacific which is great for showing the types of materials used, the variety of distinct styles and the workmanship that went into them. I had also brought some handling materials along for everyone to study and think about styles and materials. We wrapped up the morning with a discussion about collections care, hazards, and considerations when working with secret or sacred material. We discussed cultural considerations in more depth through a case study in which I invited everyone to imagine they had a mask in their collections that was men’s business and that women could not look at or touch. I asked how everyone would approach such an item if it needed to be moved and only a female member of collections staff was available.

After lunch we got into groups to discuss some artefacts which I had invited everyone to bring with them. We had fun trying to figure out where some unprovenanced items in the collection from the Falconer Museum in Forres, near Aberdeen, were from (only one was Pacific!) This was an opportunity to explore what great collections other Scottish museums and archives have.

Discussing some of the mystery artefacts from the Falconer Museum in Forres

Discussing some of the mystery artefacts from the Falconer Museum in Forres


I had then planned an activity to get people thinking about tourist pieces, authenticity and the way items were made for trade. I wanted to show how you might differentiate artefacts as ‘authentic’ but also encourage everyone to think about the notion of authenticity. There are often interesting stories to be told about trade pieces or items that incorporate designs or materials from outside the local community. It can be easy to forget that trade items for a European market were being made right from the point of contact as communities, as you would expect, took the opportunity to engage in exchange transactions. I had taken three hei tiki pendants from the museum stores – one a beautifully carved early example from the late 18th century, another a well made but possibly for trade item from the early 20th century, and the third a plastic version bought in the 1990s. I had also brought along two flesh forks, often called cannibal forks, from Fiji. These were both rather oversized unused items – one late 19th century bought by Constance Gordon Cumming and the other a roughly made piece from the mid-20th century.
Workshop attendees discussing issues of authenticity of artefacts

Workshop attendees discussing issues of authenticity of artefacts

The final part of the day involved a presentation from Pat Allan, project partner and Curator of World Cultures at Glasgow Museums. I invited Pat to speak about working with communities and I ended the session with a film of Marshallese poet and writer Kathy Jetnil-Kijiner reading her moving poem ‘Tell them’. I have shared the link previously and you can find that video here on Kathy’s blog. I wanted to illustrate the contemporary stories which we can tell through our collections such as the massive impact of climate change. It can be easy for museums with 19th century collections to focus on the past but it is important to acknowledge the contemporary nature of every culture.

The knowledge exchange workshop has been developed into a resource entitled Introduction to Pacific collections. This is one of the core outcomes from the Pacific Collections in Scottish Museums project and will be available online from the 25th November 2014 at www.nms.ac.uk/pacific

– Eve

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Mysterious tribute to a Hawaiian Princess

While checking over the galleries at National Museum of Scotland this morning we were intrigued and excited to find two anthirium flowers and a photograph placed on the plinth beside the large Cook Islands feast bowl on display.

Feast bowl from the Cook Islands in the Grand Gallery of National Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh

Feast bowl from the Cook Islands in the Grand Gallery of National Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh


They were accompanied by a message in red ink reading:
‘In memory of Dear Friend of Titaua Whom spent family gatherings in Anstruther – Princess Victoria Kaiulani Cleghorn – (16.10.1875 – 6.3.1899) For the deep kinship between the Pacific Princesses’
Tribute to Princess Kaiulani placed beside the feast bowl on the day of her birthday in 1875 - the16th October

Tribute to Princess Kaiulani placed beside the feast bowl on the day of her birthday in 1875 – the16th October


Princess Kaiulani was part of the Hawaiian royal family and daughter of a Scottish man Archibald Cleghorn and Princess Likelike of Hawaii. During the 1890s she spent time in Scotland with the Tahitian Princess Titaua who at that time lived in the Scottish fishing town of Anstruther. The feast bowl next to which the tribute was placed is part of a larger collection at the museum which belonged to Princess Titaua. This particular piece was originally gifted to her in 1871 by Parua, the high chief of Atiu in the Cook Islands.
Princess Titaua was the daughter of an English man and the sister of Queen Pomare IV of Tahiti. Queen Pomare IV adopted Titaua in accordance with a Tahitian custom and gave her the royal name of Tetuanui-reia-ite-raiatea. At fourteen Titaua married Scottish trader John Brander. Following his death, she married Brander’s business associate, a Scottish businessman named George Darsie. In 1892 they retired to Darsie’s hometown of Anstruther.

National Museums Scotland recently acquired a Jour Apres Jour Book (Birthday Book) which belonged to Princess Titaua Darsie. It contains a number of signatures, as was the practice of registering a signature on the appropriate birthday. The book reveals further people within Titaua’s network and adding to her important collection.

Jour apres Jour book whihc previously belonged to Princess Titaua of Tahiti

Jour apres Jour book which previously belonged to Princess Titaua of Tahiti

A look at Vanuatu collections in National Museums Scotland

Last week I hosted a visit from Christian Kaufmann former Curator of the Oceania Department at the Museum der Kulturen in Basel. We spent two days in store at National Musuems Scotland mainly looking at collections from Vanuatu. The four project partner museums (National Museums Scotland, Perth Museum & Art Gallery, Glasgow Life and University of Aberdeen Museums) all have material culture from Vanuatu which we knew from the beginning of the review had connections to Scottish Presbyterian missionaries who lived on the islands, mainly in Southern Vanuatu, from the 1840s-1940s. During the course of the Pacific Collections Review we have found the missionary connection is much more significant than first believed, with many more artefacts than we originally thought being traced back to missionary collectors once you scratch the surface of the documentation.

Map of Vanuatu

Map of Vanuatu


At National Museums Scotland (NMS) there are around 550 artefacts from Vanuatu and 250 of those were brought to Scotland by Reverend James Hay Lawrie, a missionary who was based on the southernmost island in Vanuatu, Aneityum, from 1879-1896(also known as Anatom and marked as such on the above map). Lawrie brought back material from Aneityum, Aniwa, Futuna, Tanna, Malekula, Epi, Ambrim, Nguna, Efate and Tongoa. The descriptions Lawrie recorded of the artefacts he collected give an insight into the culture on the islands at that time. They show he had a real interest in the culture of the people of Vanuatu, as opposed to some missionary collectors who focussed on using material culture to over emphasise cultural differences and justify what they saw as a need for mission work.

The first Presbyterian church in Vanuatu was established on Aneityum in 1852 by Rev John Geddie. Geddie was born in Aberdeenshire in Scotland and his family emigrated to Nova Scotia in Canada when he was young. Geddie was on Aneityum from 1848 and was joined in 1852 by another missionary, a Reverend John Inglis from Scotland. The Vanuatu collections in Scotland that were collected by missionaries reflect their interests and work on the islands: there are artefacts such as sacred stones and items of dress that reflect the missionary desire to modify people’s behaviour and convert them to Christianity, there are objects that tell the story of local culture and everyday life at that time, and there are artefacts that reflect the cash economy that missionaries were helping to create such as samples of arrowroot (a plant people were encouraged to cultivate and process for trade). There are also some items in Scottish collections that may not automatically be thought of as being associated with Vanuatu including bibles that have been translated into the local language of an island and communion tokens. Tokens are particularly associated with practices of the Scottish Presbyterian church and I gave a paper on them at Pacific Arts Association Europe conference last month in Cologne. Communion tokens offer a starting point to think about the complex relationships that existed between missionaries, local communities and others in Vanuatu in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
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Both sides of a communion token from Aneityum, first used on the island c.1852. One of 2 communion tokens brought to Scotland by Rev JH Lawrie.

Both sides of a communion token from Aneityum, first used on the island c.1852. One of 2 communion tokens brought to Scotland by Rev JH Lawrie.


Rev. JH Lawrie’s collection includes a wide variety of material ranging from body adornments such as combs…
Comb from Erromango (A.1890.170)

Comb from Erromango (A.1890.170)


To clubs including this dance club carved at the end with a shark’s tail…
Club (nelup) of wood from Aneityum which was used in dancing. Donated to National Museums Scotland by Rev JH Lawrie in 1889 (A.1889.514)

Club (nelup) of wood from Aneityum which was used in dancing. Donated to National Museums Scotland by Rev JH Lawrie in 1889 (A.1889.514)


Detail of one end of club (nelup) from Aneityum which was used in dancing. Donated to National Museums Scotland by Rev JH Lawrie in 1889 (A.1889.514)

Detail of one end of club (nelup) from Aneityum which was used in dancing. Donated to National Museums Scotland by Rev JH Lawrie in 1889 (A.1889.514)


To two tree fern grade figures from Malakula which Lawrie sent to the museum in 1896.
two fern grade figures from Malakula collected by Reverend James H Lawrie and donated to National Museums Scotland by him in 1896 (L-R: A.1896.15 & A.1896.14). The suit of armour from the Scottish history collection gives an idea of scale!

two fern grade figures from Malakula collected by Reverend James H Lawrie and donated to National Museums Scotland by him in 1896 (L-R: A.1896.15 & A.1896.14). The suit of armour from the Scottish history collection gives an idea of scale!


These figures relate to grade taking ceremonies where a person rises in status. They are made of a tree with multiple aerial roots. The green pigment is special and is particular to one area of Malakula from which it was traded.
Reverend Lawrie took many photographs during his time in Vanuatu and also brought a photo collection back to Scotland. Sadly the collection has been lost but there are still copies of many of his photographs in the Mitchell Library in Australia. One of these images shows an older man with a caption reading ‘Numrang, sub-chief of N side of Aneityum – Bequeathed his beard when dying to his successor. The beard was intermixed with dried seaweed and worn by the man in the opposite photo. 1890’The photo of the younger man shows him wearing the neck ornament and after studying these photos and the artefacts in Scotland I’ve discovered that the neck ornament is now here in Edinburgh in National Museums Scotland:
Chiefly neck ornament from Aneityum, Vanuatu, made of seaweed and human hair on a twisted plant fibre cord. Pieces of pink coral still remain attached to some parts of the seaweed (A.1895.413.74)

Chiefly neck ornament from Aneityum, Vanuatu, made of seaweed and human hair on a twisted plant fibre cord. Pieces of pink coral still remain attached to some parts of the seaweed (A.1895.413.74)


In addition to Lawrie’s collection, there is other important material from Vanuatu here in NMS. Christian and I were particularly interested in some of the older ceremonial masks such as this one of Malakula. It was brought to Scotland in 1890 by Reverend William Watt of Edinburgh who was a missionary based on Tanna with his wife.
Ceremonial mask of wood overmodelled with clay from Malakula (A.1890.428)

Ceremonial mask of wood overmodelled with clay from Malakula (A.1890.428)


Side view of mask from Malakula

Side view of mask from Malakula


One of the earliest set of artefacts from Vanuatu in National Museums Scotland are three skirts from Ambrim which would’ve been worn in layers. Although we don’t have an exact date, we know the skirts came via the University of Edinburgh collection which dates them as pre-1854.
One of three skirts from Ambrim, Vanuatu (A.UC.579A)

One of three skirts from Ambrim, Vanuatu (A.UC.579A)


I have recently been awarded generous funding from the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland and the Strathmartine Trust to travel to Vanuatu to carry out more research relating to the missionary collections in Scotland. I’ll be on Aneityum for 2 weeks in July and am excited about being able to take photographs and information on the collections in Scotland back to Aneityum where there is work on-going on the island to establish a museum and archive. I’ll be there with archaeologists from Australia National University who are carrying out fieldwork on the site of the old church and missionary’s house from the 19th century. In preparation for going to Vanuatu I have been working through the missionary archives at National Library of Scotland and have recently found what is best described as a scrap book compiled by a friend of Rev. JH Lawrie in Edinburgh. It contains some photographs taken by Lawrie as well as letters from him and pressed plant samples. The photographs from the album have been digitised and you can view them here: http://digitallibrary.usc.edu/cdm/search/field/refere/searchterm/Acc.7548%252FF%252F19

– Eve

Life histories: the Reverend James and Mrs Emma Hadfield collection

Chantal has written a blog about an exhibition at the Museum of New Caledonia which has told the story of the Reverend James Hadfield and Mrs Emma Hadfield, and their 40 years as missionaries in the Loyalty Islands. This exhibition included 13 artefacts from National Museums Scotland’s Hadfield collections. Read more here:

http://feastbowl.wordpress.com/2014/04/01/life-histories-the-reverend-james-and-mrs-emma-hadfield-collection/

An Island Adventure

Sign in Gaelic welcoming visitors to Great Cumbrae

Sign in Gaelic welcoming visitors to Great Cumbrae


We recently visited The Museum of the Cumbraes in the Garrison building in Millport on the island of Great Cumbrae to see their collection from Papua New Guinea. For the project team this was the first time we had visited an island. Sadly we weren’t going as far as the Pacific but we were pleased to find palm trees (technically New Zealand cabbage or ti kouka – EH) in the garden outside the museum…
Museum of the Cumbraes in Millport, Great Cumbrae

Museum of the Cumbraes in Millport, Great Cumbrae


On the ferry from Largs to the island of Great Cumbrae (L-R: Chantal Knowles, Eve Haddow)

On the ferry from Largs to the island of Great Cumbrae (L-R: Chantal Knowles, Eve Haddow)


We visited the museum specifically to look at the collection made by Andrew Goldie. A Millport man, he followed his father into the trade as a nurseryman and in the 1860s left Millport town, on the island of Great Cumbrae in the Firth of Clyde on Scotland’s west coast to spend ten years in Auckland, New Zealand importing plants for the gardens of New Zealand settlers. At the end of the ten years he returned home but soon gained a contract with a garden nursery business in London to travel through the South Pacific and supply the firm with bulbs, plants and seeds. Although a knowledgeable gardener, giving him some expertise in Natural History, Goldie was a Victorian ‘plant hunter’ seeking exotic species for the fashionable gardens of Britain.

In 1877 Goldie travelled to Brisbane where he expected to catch a mission vessel to Vanuatu to begin his search for plants, unfortunately he arrived too late to board and on the toss of a coin changed his plans and headed for New Guinea. Goldie spent the next few years exploring, trading and developing businesses. He acquired land, discovered new species of plants and birds, and named the Goldie River after himself. Over the years he became very much a part of New Guinea life and an important contact for missionaries, museums and colonial officials. He set up a trade store and acquired a sizeable piece of land in the capital Port Moresby and became a well-known figure in New Guinea and Brisbane.

Over the years Goldie’s business grew, he invested in various companies and built relationships with museums supplying Natural History specimens to the Australian Museum, Sydney and later Queensland Museum, Brisbane among others. He also supplied dealers and taxidermists worldwide. On our return to National Museums Scotland we were able to discover through our records that one such dealer E. Gerrard and Sons, London based taxidermists, supplied the museum with 103 items attributed to Goldie. How many other Goldie collections may there be?

These 4 lime spatulas from Papua New Guinea are some of a number of objects at National Museums Scotland we have discovered to have been collected by Andrew Goldie

These 4 lime spatulas from Papua New Guinea are some of a number of objects at National Museums Scotland we have discovered to have been collected by Andrew Goldie


The small but significant collection of Goldie material in the Museum of the Cumbraes has been published in the Queensland Museum reports (see http://www.network.qm.qld.gov.au/About+Us/Publications/Memoirs+of+the+Queensland+Museum/MQM-C+Vol+6#.UvqluPbn1VQ ) and can also be seen on-line (http://www.futuremuseum.co.uk/collections/people/key-people/collectors-explorers/andrew-goldie.aspx). It is supplemented with some associated archival material including Goldie’s journal documenting his first voyage to New Zealand, Goldie’s memoirs, the premature announcement of his death in the local paper, a few personal letters, and a photograph of his New Guinea display at the International Exhibition, Sydney. All this makes an interesting and valuable collection and highlights include the shield and hornbill ornament that are on permanent display. The collection didn’t arrive in the museum until the late 1970s having resided in the home of the Goldie family all those years. Whilst clearing the building prior to sale the Goldie family unearthed the objects and donated them to the museum.
There is a permanent display at the Museum in Millport of material from Papua New Guinea donated by Andrew Goldie

There is a permanent display at the Museum in Millport of material from Papua New Guinea donated by Andrew Goldie


At the time the museum curator was assured that nothing remained in the house, however, in the last few months a further collection of bamboo pipes and stone-headed clubs were brought in having been found in the attic. The pipes and clubs add breadth to the collection already in the museum and one of the pipes is decorated by, most likely, a European, depicts stylised ships, men in elaborate dress and fanciful creatures and animals. It is difficult to ascertain who the artist might be – a bored sailor or Goldie himself?
Close up of part of a tobacco pipe which has been in the attic above the old Goldie family home. It was discovered with several other pipes and stone headed clubs last year. We believe this pipe was decorated by a European, possibly a sailor?

Close up of part of a tobacco pipe which has been in the attic above the old Goldie family home. It was discovered with several other pipes and stone headed clubs last year. We believe this pipe was decorated by a European, possibly a sailor?


There are probably other artefacts in Millport and there were certainly a greater number in the past. On our visit Museum Officer Mark Strachan introduced us to Sandy, one of the museum’s volunteers. A retired television and radio shop owner, Sandy remembered fitting the Goldie’s TV aerial in their attic and removing boomerangs and spears to take up on the hills to try out. Sandy also remembered ‘a catamaran’ boat model – most likely a model outrigger canoe – which may yet turn up. So the collection in Millport is Goldie’s mementoes, those souvenirs he brought home with him to Scotland not long before his death. The objects with which he could describe the places, people and things he had seen to his family and friends.
 Mark Strachan, Museum Officer for North Ayrshire Council. Mark is responsible for the Goldie collection and hosted our visit to the museum in Millport

Mark Strachan, Museum Officer for North Ayrshire Council. Mark is responsible for the Goldie collection and hosted our visit to the museum in Millport


Goldie and his collections are well documented but just like the NMS collection we are sure there are more items to discover. For the project it is interesting to connect Goldie’s collections with Custom Officer Ballantyne’s collection in Greenock and Governor McGregor’s collection in Aberdeen giving a sense of Scottish – New Guinea collections and the interactions and interrelations between traders, missionaries and government officers in the early years of the colony.
– Chantal

Widening the search

Last year Eve and I spent intensive periods at each of the partner museums. We were hosted by each institution and project partner member and gained a greater understanding of the collections, their documentation systems and archives as well as having the opportunity for the intensive study of the artefacts themselves.

The standout moment for me was at Perth Museum and Art Gallery (PMAG) when combing the bookcases I discovered an anonymous notebook about the Royal Scottish Museum (now National Museums Scotland). This notebook was packed full of descriptions of the galleries, supplemented by drawings of key objects. The date of the notebook strongly suggested that the unnamed author was a curator at PMAG who had been sent on a ‘field trip’ to Edinburgh to examine the collections and displays. He (as we assume from the staff lists of the time) paid particular attention to object mounts and case furniture and it seems likely this was due to the imminent opening of the new PMAG building and the redisplay of material within.

Front cover of the notebook  from 1933 found  in Perth Museum & Art Gallery which records the Pacific displays at the Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh (now National Museums Scotland).

Front cover of the notebook from 1933 found in Perth Museum & Art Gallery which records the Pacific displays at the Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh (now National Museums Scotland).


one of the pages of the notebook found  in Perth Museum & Art Gallery detailing part of the Pacific displays at the Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh (now National Museums Scotland). The notes and drawings were made by a curator from Perth in 1933.

one of the pages of the notebook found in Perth Museum & Art Gallery detailing part of the Pacific displays at the Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh (now National Museums Scotland). The notes and drawings were made by a curator from Perth in 1933.

Not only are many of the objects roughly sketched but there is a description of how objects are grouped and how broad themes or regions were introduced using maps and text. As NMS has only one picture of the ethnographic collections on display during that time frame, and it was taken decades earlier c.1895, this provides a detailed description nearly 30 years later. There were several other galleries that had Pacific collections on display but we have no photographic record of them at all. Although a picture can be built up from annual reports, displays were rarely described in detail. Luckily for this project the notebook focuses on the Oceania collections (with some information on the North American and Asian collections) reflecting the bias in PMAG’s non-European material at that time.

The ethnography gallery in the West Wing of the Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh, c.1895

The ethnography gallery in the West Wing of the Royal Scottish Museum, Edinburgh, c.1895

Finally the notebook has a short summary of the documentation systems at NMS, which reads like notes taken from a discussion with a member of staff. This explanation of our use of accession registers, card catalogues and other lists revealed the reason behind certain idiosyncrasies in our documentation sources that I have been puzzling over for many years.

It describes the Card Index which is sorted by region as being associated exclusively with those objects on display and not including items in store. At that time the vast majority of the collections were on display so this explanation accounts for the fact that the card index, although extensive, has never been comprehensive. This use of the Card Index changed in later years (probably the original purpose was forgotten) as the density of objects on display was reduced and gradually some of the missing cards were added. But it is nonetheless useful to understand its early history.

More importantly the notebook provides a written explanation as to the purpose of two volumes known as the ‘Ex-registers’. Objects numbered with a prefix‘X’ were not officially part of the collections but were on display. I had assumed ‘X’ was shorthand for exchange as many objects in the registers had been disposed of and some of them to collectors or dealers. Colleagues in the Science and Technology department also hold X-registers and they had explained that they used them to provide numbers for objects used in displays but not needed in the collections (eg. a lump of coal at the end of a case on coal production in Scotland). This made sense; it provided an audit trail but not a commitment to keeping the object in perpetuity. However, the Art and Ethnography ‘X-register’ contained certain objects of such importance and rarity, such as the stunning Austral Islands headdress below, that it seemed strange to deem it not part of the collections. These headdresses are rare – only 9 are known and even in the early twentieth century they would already be about 100 years old. For years it had perplexed me as to why my predecessors had not understood its value to the permanent collections. Perhaps the answer is in the notebook:

Also a book is kept for specimens that have no data or the data has been lost, and if the data be found it is removed from this book, and entered where it should be. This is called an ‘Ex’ Book.

This explanation entirely concords with the probable provenance for this object. That it was in the University Collection (that was transferred to the museum at its inception in 1854) but the contents of which had remained packed and crated until the 1880s, meaning that much of the associated information was lost. The ‘Ex’ registers are the same format and written in the same hand as the ‘UC’ collection register suggesting that this was part of the sorting process in the late nineteenth century.

The notebook provided me with a reasoning to look through the various archival sources for the University museum to find out if I could work out when it had come into the museum. The university collection archives comprise, a register of specimens and weekly and daily report books. In February 1824, in Weekly Report Book II, is the following entry:

A large box containing three large caps or headdresses ornamented with feathers, one marked “chief’s cap from Rurutu.
The feathers of the headdresses have been partly destroyed by mice, one of which was found dead in the box’

From here I was able to check the register and day books. Unfortunately no further information is given. The headdresses are said to have come in a shipment from ‘Van Diemen’s Land’ or Tasmania. Part of the colony of New South Wales, then under the governance of Sir Thomas Brisbane, it seems likely, though not conclusive, that these three headdresses are associated with Brisbane.

Headdress from the Austral Islands in the collection at National Museums Scotland, A.1966.390 (formerly X.552). This headdress can now be positively associated with the University of Edinburgh Collection and an 1824 date.

Headdress from the Austral Islands in the collection at National Museums Scotland, A.1966.390 (formerly X.552). This headdress can now be positively associated with the University of Edinburgh Collection and an 1824 date.

Through a greater understanding of our documentation we now have 3 headdresses (one, A.UC.439A of which was gifted to the Otago Museum in 1939) that were collected together, in Australia, either from ships, traders or curiosity dealers at sometime before February 1824. This puts these headdresses at being made before this date and concords with the history of the other pieces in museums in the UK.
– Chantal